What is Data Science? Complete Guide

What is Data Science?

Data Science is a multidisciplinary field that uses various techniques and algorithms to extract insights and knowledge from data. It combines elements of statistics, computer science, and domain expertise to analyze large datasets and make data-driven decisions. Data scientists collect, clean, and process data, then apply machine learning and statistical models to uncover patterns, trends, and valuable insights that can be used for decision-making, predictions, and solving complex problems across industries like healthcare, finance, marketing, and more.

Table of Contents

What is Data Science?

Data science is a multidisciplinary field that combines various techniques, processes, and tools to extract meaningful insights and knowledge from data. It involves collecting, cleaning, and analyzing large datasets to uncover hidden patterns, trends, and valuable information that can inform decision-making and solve complex problems.

Data scientists use a combination of statistics, machine learning, and domain knowledge to interpret data, build predictive models, and create data-driven solutions across diverse industries such as healthcare, finance, marketing, and more. The ultimate goal of data science is to leverage data to make informed decisions, optimize processes, and drive innovation, helping organizations gain a competitive edge and better understand their operations and customers.

Why is Data Science Important?

Data science is a multidisciplinary field that uses various techniques, algorithms, processes, and systems to extract insights and knowledge from data. It has gained immense importance in recent years due to its ability to help organizations make data-driven decisions, solve complex problems, and gain a competitive advantage. Here are detailed explanations of why data science is important:

  • Informed Decision-Making: Data science enables organizations to make informed decisions by analyzing and interpreting large datasets. Instead of relying on intuition or guesswork, decision-makers can use data-driven insights to understand trends, patterns, and potential outcomes, leading to more accurate and strategic choices.
  • Improved Efficiency: Data science can optimize processes and operations by identifying inefficiencies and suggesting improvements. For instance, in supply chain management, data analysis can help reduce inventory costs and streamline logistics.
  • Customer Understanding: Data science helps businesses gain a deeper understanding of their customers. By analyzing customer behavior and preferences, companies can tailor their products, services, and marketing strategies to meet specific customer needs, leading to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.
  • Competitive Advantage: Organizations that effectively leverage data science gain a competitive edge. They can identify market trends, predict customer demands, and adapt quickly to changing market conditions. This agility can be a significant advantage in industries with stiff competition.
  • Innovation: Data science is at the heart of many technological advancements. It fuels innovations in areas such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and deep learning. These technologies have applications in various sectors, from healthcare and finance to autonomous vehicles and natural language processing.

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  • Risk Management: Data science helps organizations assess and mitigate risks. In finance, for example, it’s used for credit scoring, fraud detection, and portfolio optimization. In healthcare, it aids in predicting disease outbreaks and optimizing treatment plans.
  • Cost Reduction: Data science can identify cost-saving opportunities within an organization. By analyzing data related to resource allocation and utilization, businesses can make more efficient use of their assets and reduce unnecessary expenses.
  • Personalization: Data science is instrumental in creating personalized experiences for customers. From recommendation engines on streaming platforms to tailored marketing campaigns, data-driven personalization improves user engagement and conversion rates.
  • Scientific Discovery: In research fields, data science accelerates scientific discovery. Scientists can process and analyze large datasets to make breakthroughs in areas like genomics, climate science, and drug discovery.
  • Social Impact: Data science has the potential to address societal challenges. It plays a vital role in public health, disaster response, and urban planning. For instance, it can help track disease outbreaks, optimize emergency response efforts, and design more sustainable cities.
  • Data Monetization: Many organizations generate valuable data as a byproduct of their operations. Data science allows them to monetize this data by identifying opportunities for new revenue streams or by selling data-related products and services.
  • Data Ethics and Privacy: As data collection and analysis become more prevalent, ethical considerations and privacy concerns have grown. Data science is essential for developing responsible data practices and ensuring the protection of individuals’ privacy rights.

History of Data Science

The history of data science is a relatively recent development, emerging as a distinct field in the 21st century. It draws upon concepts and techniques from various disciplines, including statistics, computer science, mathematics, and domain-specific knowledge. Here’s a brief overview of the history of data science:

Early Foundations (1960s – 1980s):

  • The foundations of data science can be traced back to the emergence of computer science and statistics as separate disciplines.
  • Early computer scientists and statisticians laid the groundwork for data analysis and manipulation.
  • The term “data science” was not widely used during this period.

Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery (1990s):

  • In the 1990s, data mining and knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) gained prominence.
  • Researchers and practitioners developed techniques to extract valuable information from large datasets.
  • The term “data mining” became popular as a subset of data science.

Big Data Era (2000s – Early 2010s):

  • The advent of the internet, social media, and the proliferation of digital devices led to an explosion in data generation.
  • Technologies like Hadoop and MapReduce emerged to handle massive datasets, laying the foundation for big data analytics.
  • Data science started incorporating tools and techniques for processing and analyzing large volumes of data.

Emergence of Data Science as a Field (Mid-2010s):

  • Data science began to gain recognition as a distinct field in academia and industry.
  • Universities and institutions started offering formal data science programs and degrees.
  • The interdisciplinary nature of data science, which combines statistics, programming, domain expertise, and data visualization, became more apparent.

Data Science in Industry (2010s – Present):

  • Businesses and organizations across various sectors began adopting data science to gain insights from their data.
  • Data-driven decision-making became a crucial aspect of modern business strategies.
  • Companies started hiring data scientists and building data science teams.

Evolution and Advancements (Present – Ongoing):

  • Data science continues to evolve with the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) techniques.
  • Ethical considerations, data privacy, and responsible AI practices have gained importance.
  • Data science is applied in fields such as healthcare, finance, marketing, and more to solve complex problems and make predictions.

Future Trends (Beyond 2021):

  • The future of data science is expected to involve advancements in AI, deep learning, and automation.
  • Data science will likely play a crucial role in addressing global challenges, such as climate change, healthcare, and cybersecurity.
  • Ethical and regulatory frameworks for data usage are likely to continue evolving.

Future of Data Science

The future of data science holds immense promise and will likely be shaped by several key trends and developments. Data science is a rapidly evolving field that plays a pivotal role in extracting valuable insights from data to drive decision-making, innovation, and improvements across various industries. Here, I will explain in detail some of the most significant aspects of the future of data science:

Advanced Analytics and AI Integration:

  • Data science will continue to integrate with artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) at a deeper level. This integration will enable more sophisticated predictive and prescriptive analytics, allowing organizations to make more accurate and automated decisions.

Automated Machine Learning (AutoML):

  • AutoML tools and platforms will become more prevalent, making it easier for non-experts to build and deploy machine learning models. This democratization of data science will lead to broader adoption across various industries.

Big Data and Edge Computing:

  • With the growth of the Internet of Things (IoT), data collection will increasingly happen at the edge, where devices and sensors generate massive amounts of data. Data scientists will need to develop skills to work with distributed and real-time data streams.

Explainable AI (XAI):

  • As AI and ML models are used in critical decision-making processes, the need for transparency and interpretability will become more critical. Explainable AI techniques will gain importance to make AI models more understandable and trustworthy.

Data Privacy and Ethics:

  • The future of data science will be heavily influenced by ethical considerations and data privacy regulations. Companies will need to invest in robust data governance, compliance, and ethical AI practices to ensure responsible data handling.

Natural Language Processing (NLP):

  • NLP will continue to advance, enabling machines to understand and generate human language more accurately. This has applications in chatbots, sentiment analysis, and the extraction of insights from unstructured text data.

Graph Analytics:

  • Graph analytics will play a more prominent role in data science, especially in applications involving social networks, recommendation systems, and fraud detection. Graph databases and algorithms will become essential tools for data scientists.

Quantum Computing:

  • While still in its infancy, quantum computing has the potential to revolutionize data science by solving complex problems much faster than classical computers. This could lead to breakthroughs in optimization, cryptography, and simulation.

Data Democratization:

  • The democratization of data will continue, with more individuals and departments within organizations gaining access to data and analytics tools. Self-service BI and analytics platforms will empower non-technical users to perform data analysis.

Cross-disciplinary Collaboration:

  • Data scientists will increasingly collaborate with experts from various domains such as healthcare, finance, and environmental science. This interdisciplinary approach will lead to more impactful solutions to complex problems.

Continuous Learning:

  • The field of data science evolves rapidly, and professionals will need to embrace continuous learning to stay relevant. Online courses, certifications, and workshops will be essential for keeping skills up to date.

Data Science in Healthcare:

  • Healthcare will continue to be a major beneficiary of data science, with applications ranging from drug discovery and genomics to patient diagnosis and personalized treatment plans.

Climate and Environmental Applications:

  • Data science will play a critical role in addressing environmental challenges, such as climate modeling, resource optimization, and disaster prediction and response.


  • Data science will be crucial in detecting and mitigating cybersecurity threats. Machine learning algorithms will analyze large volumes of data to identify patterns indicative of cyberattacks.

Augmented and Virtual Reality (AR/VR):

  • Data science will enable more immersive and interactive AR/VR experiences, making these technologies more practical for various industries, including gaming, education, and training.

What is Data Science Used For?

Data science is a multidisciplinary field that combines techniques from statistics, mathematics, computer science, and domain expertise to extract valuable insights and knowledge from data. It involves the collection, cleaning, analysis, interpretation, and visualization of data to make informed decisions and solve complex problems. Here are some of the key applications and uses of data science, explained in detail:

Business Intelligence and Decision Making:

  • Market Analysis: Companies use data science to analyze market trends, customer preferences, and competitor strategies to make informed business decisions.
  • Risk Assessment: It helps assess risks associated with various business activities, such as lending, investment, and insurance.


  • Disease Prediction: Data science is used to build predictive models that can help identify disease outbreaks and predict patient outcomes.
  • Drug Discovery: Data analysis assists in the discovery of new drugs and optimizing existing treatments.


  • Algorithmic Trading: Data science is crucial in developing trading algorithms that analyze market data and execute trades automatically.
  • Credit Scoring: Banks and financial institutions use data science to assess the creditworthiness of individuals and organizations.


  • Customer Segmentation: Companies segment their customer base to tailor marketing strategies and product recommendations.
  • Churn Prediction: Predicting customer churn helps businesses retain customers through targeted interventions.


  • Recommendation Systems: Data science powers recommendation engines that suggest products, services, or content to users based on their past behavior and preferences.
  • Supply Chain Optimization: Optimization algorithms help in managing inventory, logistics, and demand forecasting.

Social Media and Web Services:

  • Sentiment Analysis: Analyzing social media and online content to gauge public sentiment about products, brands, or political topics.
  • Personalization: Customizing user experiences by analyzing user behavior and providing tailored content or services.

Manufacturing and Operations:

  • Predictive Maintenance: Data science models predict when equipment or machinery is likely to fail, allowing for proactive maintenance.
  • Quality Control: Monitoring and ensuring product quality through data-driven techniques.

Science and Research:

  • Genomics: Analyzing genetic data to understand genetic variations, disease susceptibility, and personalized medicine.
  • Climate Modeling: Using data science to model and predict climate patterns, which is vital for environmental research.

Government and Public Policy:

  • Crime Analysis: Predicting and preventing crimes by analyzing historical crime data.
  • Resource Allocation: Optimizing resource allocation in public services such as healthcare, education, and transportation.

Sports Analytics:

  • Player Performance Analysis: Evaluating athlete performance and making data-driven decisions in sports like basketball, soccer, and baseball.
  • Fan Engagement: Enhancing fan experiences through data-driven insights into preferences and behavior.


  • Personalized Learning: Customizing educational content and strategies based on student performance and learning patterns.
  • Predictive Analytics: Identifying students at risk of dropping out and providing timely interventions.

Energy and Utilities:

  • Energy Consumption Optimization: Using data science to optimize energy usage and reduce costs in industries and households.
  • Grid Management: Managing power grids efficiently through data analysis and predictive maintenance.

What are Different Data Science Tools?

Data science tools are software applications, libraries, and frameworks that data scientists use to collect, clean, analyze, visualize, and interpret data. These tools play a crucial role in the entire data science workflow, from data acquisition to model deployment. Here are some of the most popular data science tools, along with detailed explanations of their functionalities:


  • Description: Python is one of the most widely used programming languages in data science. It offers a rich ecosystem of libraries and frameworks for data manipulation and analysis.
  • Key Libraries:
      • NumPy: Provides support for numerical operations and multi-dimensional arrays.
      • Pandas: Offers data structures and data analysis tools for data manipulation and cleaning.
      • Matplotlib and Seaborn: Used for data visualization.
      • Scikit-Learn: A machine learning library that includes various algorithms for classification, regression, clustering, and more.
      • TensorFlow and PyTorch: Deep learning libraries for building and training neural networks.

R Programming:

  • Description: R is a language and environment specifically designed for statistical computing and data analysis. It’s known for its statistical modeling capabilities and extensive packages for data manipulation.
  • Key Packages:
      • dplyr: Provides tools for data manipulation.
      • ggplot2: A popular package for creating visually appealing data visualizations.
      • caret: A package for training and evaluating machine learning models.

Jupyter Notebook:

  • Description: Jupyter Notebook is an interactive web-based tool that allows data scientists to create and share documents containing live code, equations, visualizations, and narrative text. It supports various programming languages, including Python and R.
  • Use Cases: Ideal for exploratory data analysis, data visualization, and creating data-driven reports.


  • Description: SQL (Structured Query Language) is used for managing and querying relational databases. It’s essential for data retrieval, transformation, and aggregation.
  • Use Cases: Querying databases, data cleaning, and data integration.


  • Description: Tableau is a powerful data visualization tool that allows users to create interactive and shareable dashboards. It can connect to various data sources and transform data into visual insights.
  • Use Cases: Data visualization, reporting, and creating interactive dashboards.

Apache Hadoop:

  • Description: Hadoop is a distributed data processing framework that can handle large-scale data processing. It includes components like HDFS for storage and MapReduce for processing.
  • Use Cases: Big data processing and distributed data analysis.

Apache Spark:

  • Description: Spark is another big data framework that offers faster and more flexible data processing compared to Hadoop’s MapReduce. It supports batch processing, real-time streaming, machine learning, and graph processing.
  • Use Cases: Large-scale data processing, machine learning, and real-time analytics.


  • Description: Excel is a spreadsheet tool widely used for basic data analysis, visualization, and reporting.
  • Use Cases: Quick data exploration and simple analyses.


  • Description: RapidMiner is an integrated data science platform that provides a user-friendly interface for building and deploying machine learning models.
  • Use Cases: Data preprocessing, modeling, and model deployment.


  • Description: D3.js is a JavaScript library for creating interactive and customizable data visualizations on the web. It’s highly flexible but requires coding skills.
  • Use Cases: Custom data visualizations for web applications.

What Does a Data Scientist Do?

A data scientist is a professional who uses a combination of domain knowledge, programming skills, statistical analysis, and machine learning techniques to extract valuable insights and knowledge from data. Their primary role is to help organizations make data-driven decisions and solve complex problems. Here’s a detailed explanation of what a data scientist does:

  • Data Collection and Cleaning: Data scientists begin by collecting data from various sources. This could include structured data from databases, unstructured data from text documents or social media, or even data from sensors and IoT devices. They then clean and preprocess the data to remove errors, missing values, and inconsistencies, making it suitable for analysis.
  • Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA): Before diving into complex modeling, data scientists explore the dataset to understand its characteristics. EDA involves generating summary statistics, visualizing data using charts and graphs, and identifying patterns, outliers, and potential relationships within the data.
  • Feature Engineering: Data scientists often need to create new features or transform existing ones to improve model performance. This process involves selecting and engineering relevant variables that will help machine learning models better understand the data.
  • Model Development: Data scientists use various machine learning algorithms and statistical methods to build predictive models. They select the appropriate algorithms based on the problem they are trying to solve, the nature of the data, and the desired outcomes. Common machine learning tasks include regression (predicting a continuous variable), classification (categorizing data into classes), clustering (grouping similar data points), and recommendation systems.

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  • Model Training: Data scientists split the data into training and testing sets to train and evaluate their models. They tune hyperparameters and employ techniques like cross-validation to ensure the models generalize well to new, unseen data.
  • Model Evaluation and Validation: Data scientists assess model performance using various metrics like accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score, and others, depending on the problem type. They also perform statistical tests to ensure the results are statistically significant.
  • Deployment: Once a model is ready, data scientists work on deploying it into production systems. This often involves collaborating with software engineers and IT teams to ensure the model can make real-time predictions or automate decision-making processes.
  • Monitoring and Maintenance: Data scientists monitor deployed models to ensure they continue to perform well over time. They may need to retrain models periodically as new data becomes available or as the model’s performance degrades.
  • Communication and Visualization: Data scientists communicate their findings and insights to non-technical stakeholders through reports, presentations, and data visualizations. They use tools like Tableau, Power BI, or Python libraries like Matplotlib and Seaborn to create meaningful visual representations of data.
  • Continuous Learning: The field of data science is constantly evolving. Data scientists need to stay up-to-date with the latest techniques, tools, and technologies to remain effective in their roles. This often involves self-study, attending conferences, and participating in online communities.
  • Ethical Considerations: Data scientists must also be mindful of ethical considerations when working with data, especially sensitive or personal information. They need to ensure that their analyses and models do not result in biased or discriminatory outcomes and respect data privacy regulations.

How to Become a Data Scientist?

Becoming a data scientist is a rewarding and challenging journey that requires a combination of education, practical experience, and a specific set of skills. Below, I’ll explain in detail the steps to become a data scientist:

1. Education:

a. Obtain a Bachelor’s Degree:

  • Most data scientists have at least a bachelor’s degree in a relevant field, such as computer science, statistics, mathematics, physics, engineering, or a related discipline. While it’s possible to enter the field with a bachelor’s degree, many data scientists pursue further education.

b. Pursue a Master’s or Ph.D. (Optional):

  • Many data scientists choose to pursue a master’s degree or Ph.D. in a related field. This can provide a deeper understanding of data analysis, machine learning, and statistics, and can make you more competitive in the job market.

2. Develop Strong Mathematical and Statistical Foundations:

  • Data science relies heavily on mathematics and statistics. You should have a strong understanding of concepts such as linear algebra, calculus, probability, and hypothesis testing.

3. Learn Programming and Data Manipulation:

a. Learn a Programming Language:

  • Python and R are the most popular programming languages for data science. Start by learning one of these languages and become proficient in it. Python is highly recommended due to its versatility and extensive libraries for data analysis and machine learning.

b. Gain Proficiency in Data Manipulation:

  • Familiarize yourself with data manipulation libraries like Pandas in Python, or data frames in R. These tools are essential for cleaning, transforming, and exploring data.

4. Data Visualization:

  • Learn data visualization libraries like Matplotlib, Seaborn, or ggplot2 (for R). Being able to create meaningful visualizations is crucial for communicating your findings effectively.

5. Machine Learning and Deep Learning:

a. Understand Machine Learning Concepts:

  • Learn the fundamentals of machine learning, including supervised and unsupervised learning, regression, classification, and clustering.

b. Study Deep Learning (Optional):

  • If you’re interested in deep learning, explore neural networks, convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and recurrent neural networks (RNNs).

c. Practical Experience:

  • Gain hands-on experience by working on real-world machine learning projects and competitions on platforms like Kaggle. This will help you apply your knowledge and build a portfolio.

6. Work with Databases:

  • Learn how to work with databases, both SQL (Structured Query Language) for relational databases and NoSQL databases like MongoDB.

7. Big Data Tools (Optional):

  • Familiarize yourself with big data technologies like Apache Hadoop and Spark if you plan to work with large datasets.

8. Soft Skills:

  • Develop strong communication skills as data scientists need to explain their findings to both technical and non-technical stakeholders. Collaboration and problem-solving skills are also crucial.

9. Build a Portfolio:

  • Create a portfolio of projects that showcase your data science skills. Include detailed descriptions of the problems you’ve solved, the data you’ve used, and the results you’ve achieved.

10. Networking:

  • Attend data science meetups, conferences, and online forums to connect with others in the field. Networking can help you learn from others, find job opportunities, and stay updated on industry trends.

11. Job Search:

  • Start your job search by applying for entry-level positions like data analyst or junior data scientist. As you gain experience, you can move up to more senior roles.

12. Continuous Learning:

  • Data science is a rapidly evolving field. Stay updated with the latest developments, tools, and techniques by reading research papers, taking online courses, and participating in online communities.


Data science is a powerful and dynamic field that continues to transform industries and drive innovation. By leveraging advanced analytical techniques, machine learning algorithms, and big data technologies, data scientists are able to extract valuable insights, make informed decisions, and solve complex problems. As data continues to proliferate in our digital age, the role of data science in shaping the future cannot be underestimated. Its potential for uncovering hidden patterns and driving data-driven decision-making makes it an indispensable tool for organizations and researchers alike, paving the way for a data-driven world that holds immense promise and potential.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Data Science

Data Science is a dynamic and multidisciplinary field that leverages scientific methods, processes, algorithms, and systems to extract knowledge and insights from structured and unstructured data. Below are some frequently asked questions (FAQ) about Data Science, covering various aspects of this rapidly evolving field.

1. What is Data Science?

Data Science is a multidisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms, and systems to extract insights and knowledge from data in various forms. It combines expertise from statistics, mathematics, and computer science to analyze and interpret complex datasets.

2. What are the key components of Data Science?

The key components of Data Science include data collection, data cleaning, data analysis, machine learning, and data visualization. It involves using tools and techniques to gather, process, and derive meaningful insights from data.

3. Why is Data Science important?

Data Science plays a crucial role in decision-making processes across industries. It enables organizations to uncover patterns, trends, and correlations in data, leading to informed and data-driven decision-making.

4. What is the difference between Data Science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence?

While related, these terms differ in scope. Data Science encompasses the entire data analysis process. Machine Learning is a subset of Data Science, focusing on algorithms that enable systems to learn patterns from data. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a broader concept, referring to machines mimicking human intelligence.

5. What skills are essential for a Data Scientist?

Key skills for a Data Scientist include proficiency in programming languages (such as Python and R), statistical analysis, machine learning, data visualization, and domain-specific knowledge. Strong communication skills are also crucial to convey insights effectively.

6. What is the data analysis process in Data Science?

The data analysis process typically involves defining the problem, collecting and cleaning data, exploring and analyzing data, building models (if applicable), and communicating the results. It’s an iterative process that may involve refining approaches based on findings.

7. How is data collected in Data Science?

Data can be collected through various means, including surveys, sensors, social media, and existing databases. The choice of data collection method depends on the nature of the problem and the type of data required.

8. What is the role of statistics in Data Science?

Statistics is fundamental to Data Science as it provides the tools to analyze and interpret data. Descriptive and inferential statistics help in summarizing data and making predictions based on observed patterns.

9. What is machine learning in Data Science?

Machine Learning is a subset of Data Science that involves building models and algorithms that enable systems to learn patterns from data. It includes supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning.

10. How is Data Science used in business?

Data Science is widely used in business for tasks such as customer segmentation, demand forecasting, fraud detection, and sentiment analysis. It helps organizations make data-driven decisions, improve efficiency, and gain a competitive advantage.

11. What are the ethical considerations in Data Science?

Ethical considerations in Data Science include privacy concerns, bias in algorithms, and responsible use of data. Data Scientists must adhere to ethical guidelines and ensure the fair and transparent treatment of data.

12. Is a formal education necessary for a career in Data Science?

While a formal education in Data Science or a related field is beneficial, many successful Data Scientists come from diverse educational backgrounds. Practical experience, continuous learning, and staying updated on industry trends are crucial for a career in Data Science.

13. What tools are commonly used in Data Science?

Common tools in Data Science include programming languages (Python, R), data visualization tools (Matplotlib, Seaborn), and machine learning frameworks (TensorFlow, scikit-learn). Database systems (SQL, NoSQL) are also essential for managing and querying data.

14. How is Big Data related to Data Science?

Big Data refers to large and complex datasets that traditional data processing methods struggle to handle. Data Science often deals with Big Data using specialized tools and technologies to extract valuable insights from massive datasets.

15. What is the future of Data Science?

The future of Data Science involves advancements in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and the integration of data science into more industries. Ethical considerations and responsible AI development will become increasingly important.

About Ravendra Singh

Hello friends, I am Ravendra Singh, the Founder of News Beed. I am a blogger and digital creator. Through this blog, you can access information related to Digital Marketing and Blogging. If you find our articles informative, you can also share them with your friends. You can follow us on social media platforms as well.

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